一元論不是唯一的吠檀多哲學

當今流行的瑜伽討論,常常會說梵我合一。這說法,來自吠檀多的一元論或稱為不二論。聽起來,很容易被追求心靈成長的我們所接受,所以變成主流。在與恩師帕薩德老師學習瑜伽哲學和歷史之後,才發現原來一元論不是唯一的「真理」,只是眾多不同闡述「真理」的其中一個理論。即使是在一元論內的範疇,有也不同形式的論述。


人,有千千萬萬種,所以需要千千萬萬的路,方便理解吧?


但是,就如帕薩德老師在以下文章所提醒的,多方理解的重要性,而不是盲從當下流行的或暢銷的觀點,並且知識只是輔助,一顆純淨的心才是最重要的。


在此翻譯帕薩德老師書寫的文章,關於「​​​​吠檀多哲學不是只有『一元論』」,供您參考。



「吠檀多 (Vedanta)」是從吠陀奧義經典中出現的其中一種哲學。所謂「吠檀多」,意思是「吠陀(Veda)的精華」。


我注意到,學生們通常只學習來自商羯羅大師(Adi Shankara)的吠檀多「不二論 (Advaita)」,並且以為這是唯一的吠檀多觀點。這是對宣揚不同吠檀多觀點的哲學導師們(Acharya)的誤解。列舉這些導師,包括​​羅摩奴闍​​(Ramanuja Acharya)的「差別不二論(Vishishta Advaita)」,摩陀婆(Madhva Acharya)的「二元論(Dvaita)」,以及伐拉巴(Vallabha Acharya)的純粹不二論(Shuddha Advaita),還有更多其他。


譯者註:以海浪(物質世界)和海洋(梵)為例。商羯羅「不二論」,認為海浪和海洋是一樣的。差別不二論,認為兩者本質一樣,但是畢竟海浪和海洋還是有形式差異。二元論,海浪與海洋不一樣,通常會包含有神的信仰。純粹不二論,海浪與海洋本質都是純淨,但否定商羯羅認為物質世間的現象為虛幻。


雖然商羯羅的不二論(吠檀多非二元)在印度的學術和教育領域是最流行的,但是若您觀察普羅大眾,大多數人是跟隨著差別不二論或者是二元的看法。像印度宗教信仰濃厚的國度,神和女神已經是生活的一部分,不二論的觀點似乎有點難以滲透到社會大眾的意識層面。


然而,吠檀多哲學的美麗之處在於它已經被導師們長期多元地反思、分析、解釋和調整,從公元六世紀高帕達(Gaudapada),到公元十六世紀伐拉巴(Vallabhacharya ),一直到2017年的宣佈另一個吠檀多理論(創立者:Shri Svaminarayan十八世紀)有別於其他吠檀多哲學論述,並命名為「Aksharapurushottama Vedanta」(Akshara-不滅永恆;Purushottma-最高本我;Vedanta-吠檀多)


他們的闡述給予多元的觀點,甚至有時候論點會彼此相反。例如,商羯羅認為梵我合一(Brahma,梵,意涵是最終真實;Jiva,我,意涵是個體原則),但是摩陀婆就認為梵與我是不一樣的。


多樣的論點是吠陀文化的基石。這些導師可以自由地以自己的方式去詮釋奧義書,因為這不是種褻瀆,而拆解、意見相左、辯論是印度哲學、教育與學術的應用層面。


我誠懇希望對瑜伽和吠檀多有興趣的人們,可以多方閱讀不同導師(Acharyas)的觀點,而不是只是同意當下流行或被暢銷的說法。


除此之外,這些導師們所提倡的多元看法不是只有學術性的,而是為為了輔助證悟(Moksha),所以哲學和論戰之上,一顆純淨的心是最重要的。

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以下為帕薩德老師英文原文:

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Vedanata is one of the philosophies emerging from Vedic Upanishadic corpus. Vedanta means the essence of Veda. I have noticed that students often end up studying only the "Advaita" Vedanta(non-dual view) of Adi Shankara thinking of it to be the only view on Vedanta. This would be a big disservice to the scholarly interpretations of other Acharyas(philosopher-teachers) who propagated different views on Vedanta, like Ramanuja Acharya(Vishista Advaita-qualified monism), Madhva Acharya (Dvaita-dual view), Vallabha Acharya (Shuddha Advaita-purely non-dual view), and many others.

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Though Shankara Advaitavada (Vedantic non-dualism) is popular amongst academics, scholars & educated people in India, if you really view the masses, most of them follow either the Vishistadvaita or Dvaita ideals. In a highly religious country like India, where Goddesses & Gods are an integral aspect of daily life, the non-dual view seems hard to filter into social consciousness.

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The beauty of Vedantic philosophy is that it has been reflected upon, analyzed, interpreted & adopted in diverse ways by Acharyas over time - from Gaudapada in 6th C.E. to Vallabhacharya in 16th C.E., to as late as 2017 with Shri Svaminarayan's Aksharapurushottama Vedanta.

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Their interpretation give diverse views, at times even diametrically opposite - as in, Adi Shankara proclaims Jiva(individual principle) & Brahma (Absolute principle) are the same, Madhvacharya claiming Jiva (individual principle) & Brahma(Absolute principle) are not the same, and so on.

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Diversity of views have been the basis of Vedic culture. These Acharyas had the freedom to interpret Upanishads in their own way because it was not blasphemous​​ to do so. Dissent, disagreement, debates were valid aspects of Indic philosophy, pedagogy and scholarship.

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My request to those interested in Yoga & Vedanta is to study different views of various Acharyas & not just agree with what is popular or well marketed.

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Above all, let us not forget that these diverse views have been presented by the Acharyas not for mere scholarship, but to aid Moksha- the final liberation. So, beyond the philosophies & polemics what really matters is the purity of mind & heart.

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